Glossary | Bibliography


Avery, S. (1994) Aboriginal and European encounter in the Canberra region: a question of change and the archaeological record. Canberra, ANU Department of Archaeology and Anthropology. BA(Hons) Thesis.
[Online] At:
Accessed: 19/11/2001.

Beaton, J. M. (1982) Fire and water: aspects of Australian Aboriginal management of cycads. Archaeology in Oceania 17(1): 51-59.

Bennett, G. (1834) Wanderings in New South Wales, Batavia, Pedir Coast, Singapore and China; being the journal of a naturalist in those countries, during 1832, 1833 and 1834. 2 vols. London: Bentley.

Bluett, W.P. (1954) The Aborigines of the Canberra district at the arrival of the white man. Unpublished manuscript. Canberra: Canberra & District Historical Society.

Burbidge, N. and Gray, M. (1976) Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. Canberra: ANU Press.

Cameron-Smith, B. (1999) Wild guide: plants and animals of the Australian Alps. Annandale: Envirobook.

The Canberra region. [Online] At:
Accessed: 21/09/2002.

Cherikoff, V. & Isaacs, J. (1990) The bush food handbook. Sydney: Ti Tree Press.

Costin, A. et al. (2000) Kosciuszko alpine flora. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO.

Cribb, A.B. and Cribb, J.W. (1981) Wild medicine in Australia. Sydney: Collins.

Cribb, A.B. and Cribb, J.W. (1987) Wild food in Australia. Sydney: Fontana/Colins.

Curr, E.M. (1886) The Australian race: its origin, languages, customs, place of landing in Australian, and the routes by which it spread itself over that continent. Melbourne: Ferres.

Dawson, James (1881) Australian Aborigines. Melbourne: George Robertson.

Eddy, D. et al. (1998) Grassland flora: a field guide for the southern tablelands (NSW & ACT). Canberra: Environment ACT.

Flood, J. (1980) The moth hunters. Canberra: Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.

Flood, J. (1996) Moth hunters of the Australian Capital Territory: Aboriginal life in the Canberra region. Canberra: Flood.

Foods (1982) [Booklet and slides: Edible plant foods] In The Aborigines of the Canberra region: Aboriginal studies kit. Produced by Educational Media Services. Canberra: ACT Schools Authority.

Fraser, I. and McJannett, M. (1993) Wildflowers of the bush capital: a field guide to Canberra Nature Park. Canberra: Vertego Press.

Friends of Aranda bushland (FOAB) (1997) Our patch. Canberra: Environment Australia/Friends of the Aranda Bushland Inc.

Gott, B. (1995) NSWUSE - database of NSW plants utilised by Aborigines. Accessed at the ANBG library with the author's permission.

Gott, B. (1998) TASUSE - database of Tasmanian plants utilised by Aborigines. Accessed at the ANBG library with the author's permission.

Gott, B. (1999) Fire as an Aboriginal management tool in south-eastern Australia. Unpublished paper presented at the Australian Bushfire Conference, Albury, July 1999.

Halling, H. (ed.) (1999) From ochres to eel traps: Aboriginal Science and technology resource guide for teachers. Canberra: Science Educators Association ACT.

Harden, G.J. (ed.) (2002) Flora of New South Wales. Rev. ed. Sydney: UNSW Press.

Hardwick, R.J. (2001) Nature's larder: a field guide to the native food plants of the NSW coast. Jerrabomberra: Homosapiens.

Hercus, L. (1969) The languages of Victoria: a late survey. Canberra: AIAS. (Australian Aboriginal Studies No. 17).

Jackson-Nakano, A. (2001) The Kamberri: a history from the records of Aboriginal families in the Canberra-Queanbeyan district and surrounds 1820-1927, and historical overview 1928-2001. Aboriginal History Monograph 8.

Jones, R. (1969) Firestick farming. Australian Natural History, 16: 224-228.

Jones, R. (1975) The neolithic, paleolithic and the hunting gardeners: man and land in the Antipodes. In Quaternary studies. Edited by R.P. Suggate and M.M. Creswell. pp24-34. Wellington: Royal Society of New Zealand.

Lewis, H.T. (1981) Fire technology and resource management in aboriginal North America and Australia. In Resource managers: North American and Australian hunter-gatherers. Edited by N.W. Williams and E.S. Hunn, pp.45-68. Washington: American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Low, T. (1991) Wild food plants in Australia. North Ryde: Angus & Robertson.

The Macquarie dictionary of trees and shrubs. (1986) Dee Why, NSW: Macquarie Library.

Maiden, J. H. (1889) The useful native plants of Australia including Tasmania. Sydney: Turner and Henderson for Technological Museum of New South Wales.

Mathews, R.H. (1904) The Wiradjuri and other languages of New South Wales, Royal Anthropological Institute Journal, 2(34):294-305.

Mathews, R. H. (1908) Vocabulary of the Ngarrugu tribe, New South Wales, J. R. Soc. N.S.W. 42:335-340.

Namadji National Park. (2002)
[Online] At:
Accessed: 20/10/2002

Oates, A. and Seeman, A. (1979) Victorian Aborigines: plant foods. Melbourne: National Museum of Victoria.

The parks: National Parks and Reserves in the Alps. (2002)
[Online] At:
Accessed: 20/10/2002.

Stewart, K. and Percival, B. (1997) Bush Foods of New South Wales: a botanic record and Aboriginal oral history. Sydney: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Tindale, N.B. (1974) Aboriginal tribes of Australia. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Turbet, P. (1989) The Aborigines of the Sydney District before 1788. Sydney: Kangaroo Press.

Wrigley, J.W. and Fagg, M. (1998) Australian native plants: propagation, cultivation and use in landscaping. Sydney: Reed New Holland.

Wreck Bay Community and Renwick, C. (2000) Geebungs and snake whistles; Koori people and plants of Wreck Bay. Canberra: Aboriginal Studies Press.

Zola, N. and Gott, B. (1992) Koorie plants, Koorie people: traditional Aboriginal food, fibre and healing plants of Victoria. Melbourne: Koorie Heritage Trust.


Aboriginal relates to Australian Aborigines.

Alpine refers to the environments above the treeline. There is no area of permanent ice and snow in the ACT region (or Australia).

Annual plant living only one year or season.

Bioregion a region whose limits are naturally defined by topographic and biological features (as mountains and ecosystems).

Corm short, swollen, upright underground stem in which food is stored.

Cultural significance relates to the importance of plants to Aboriginal people.

Ecosystem community of organisms, interacting with one another, plus the environment in which they live and with which they also interact, such as a forest or grassy woodland.

Ecotourism relates to touring for pleasure with an emphasis on the natural environment.

Endemic native to a particular area or environment.

Grassy woodland grassland with a scattering of trees, such as Yellow Box, Red Gum.

Gum 1. any tree or shrub belonging to the genus Eucalyptus
2. exudate from plant such as wattle, which may be edible.

Haft handle for an axe.

Herb plant without a woody stem.

Host plant which provides nutrition for another plant.

Indigenous peoples all people native to Australia; Aboriginal peoples.

Koori (Koorie) an Australian Aboriginal person; often refers to Aboriginal people from south-eastern Australia.

Leached to have had water percolated through to remove unwanted substances, such as poison in edible plant parts.

Manna edible exudate from insects on Eucalyptus leaves.

Montane refers to 'the ecological zone which is immediate between the snow country above and the open tablelands below.' (Flood, 1980:92)

Nectar sweet secretion of plant flowers.

Ngunnawal, Ngun(n)awal, Ngunawal Aboriginal group who identify with the ACT region.

Parasitic living or growing on another plant or other organism, such as fungus.

Pedicel stalk of a flower.

Perennial persisting for three or more years.

Pith spongy tissue in the stem.

Processing methods for rendering plant parts edible/palatable, such as pounding, roasting.

Raffinose crystalline slightly sweet sugar present in many plant products.

Rhizome underground stem, usually horizontal.

Savannah grassland region with scattered trees.

Scarified having had incisions made to the seed coat to hasten sprouting.

Sclerophyll relates to hard-leaved plants, such as Eucalyptus.

Sphagnum type of bog moss characteristic of permanently wet areas in alpine areas.

Spike simple inflorescence(flower) coming from the stem.

Spore simple reproductive body usually composed of a single, detached cell, such as on a fern.

Spore-case contains spores.

Staple food which forms a very large part of the diet at the time it is used.

Starch carbohydrate in plants important in diet.

Tannin astringent substance in plants, such as wattles.

Terrestrial relates to plants growing in the earth as opposed to in water.

Tuber swollen, underground stem, bearing 'eyes' from which new plants can grow.

Viscid sticky.

Woodland land covered with trees, such as Eucalyptus.


Burbidge, N. and Gray, M. (1976). Flora of the Australian Capital Territory. Canberra: ANU Press.

Costin, A. et al. (2000). Kosciuszko alpine flora. Collingwood, Vic.: CSIRO.

Macquarie Dictionary. [Online] At: Accessed 16/10/03.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary. [Online] At: Accessed 21/02/03.

Wrigley, J. W. and Fagg, M. (1998). Australian native plants: propagation, cultivation and use in landscaping. Sydney: Reed New Holland.

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