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Elaphoglossum J. Sm.

Small to medium-size epiphytes or subepiphytes, rarely terrestrial or, lithophytic. Rhizome short- to long-creeping, bearing roots ventrally and fronds in 2 dorsal row, sometimes in several rows of radiallyarranged, dictyostelic with a large vental strand producing root traces and a single or several smaller dorsal strands, or radially arranged, large overlapping leafgaps with leaf-traces of several strands arranged in a ring, scales on young parts thin, narrow or broad, +/- cordate, concolorous, dark or pale, the margins bearing short teeth or hairs of 1 - several cells, often glandular. Stipes long or short, +/- terete, with 2 continuous aerophores, articulate or subarticulate to terete scaly phyllopodia, vascular bundles in a simple open ring, the 2 adaxial bundles larger, lamina simple, entire, mostly thick and leathery, the margin often thin and colourless, strongly costate, the costa prominent below, lamina variously paleate or glabresent; veins mostly immersed free, simply or mostly 1 - 2-times forked and parallel almost to the margin, terminating in a thickened hydathode, sometimes connected by an intramarginal vein at their tips, rarely copiously anastomosing; fertile fronds often longer, contracted and with longer stipes. Sporangia acrostichoid, entirely covering the lower surface of the lamina except for a thin decoloured margin, exindusiate, paraphyses lacking, annulus longitudinal, interrupted, of c.12 thickened cells. Spores monolete, brown, with a thick folded perispore.

Species in Papuasia

1a. Small scales on frond (except near edge) orbicular, pale, with marginal teeth each of one thick-walled cell, not glandular; rhizome scales always narrow, rigid, dark glossy 2
Small scales on frond stellate or elongate, their marginal hairs glandular, or with a glandular apical cell, thick-walled unicellular marginal hairs lacking; rhizome scales various 4
2a. Scales on upper surface conspicuously stellate; sterile fronds often to 3 cm wide 3
Scales on upper surface with very short marginal hairs; sterile fronds c.1 cm wide E. resiniferum
3a. Scales on lower surface mostly elongate, bullate at base; on the upper surface flat, those near the margin elongate forming a conspicuous spreading fringe E. miniatum
Scales on lower surface small, orbicular, flat or cup-shaped; on the upper surface flat, c. same size as lower, those near the margin not forming a conspicuous fringe E. heterolepium
4a. Lamina of sterile fronds rarely over 7 cm long, rhizome 1-2 mm diam., the fronds usually well-spaced on it 5
Lamina of sterile fronds usually more than 7 cm long, rhizome thicker 7
5a. Rhizome scales light brown 6
Rhizome scales dark E. hellwigianum
6a. Fertile lamina spatulate, abruptly contracted at the base, and then decurrent as a narrow wing c. 2 cm long; rhizome scales to 1 mm wide E. bolanicum
Fertile lamina narrowly elliptic, little-decurrent; rhizome scales c.2 mm wide E. habbemense
7a. Rhizome long-creeping with well-spaced fronds 8
Rhizome short with closely spaced fronds 12


Apex of sterile fronds acute or short-acuminate 9
Apex of sterile fronds rounded 10
9a. Scales dark, glossy, 1 mm wide E. brunneum
Scales thin, medium brown, 2-3 mm wide E. angulatum
10a. Rhizome scales light brown; scales on frond red-brown E. pullenii
Rhizome scales dark brown; scales on frond dark, glossy 11
11a. Rhizome scales to 5 x 1.5mm; stipe of sterile frond 4-15 cm long E. scleropyrum
Rhizome scales shorter, less then 1 mm wide; stipe of sterile frond 3-5 cm long E. repens
12a. Lamina of sterile frond decurrent to joint with phyllopodium or to within 2 cm of joint 13
Lamina of sterile frond not thus decurrent 21
13a. Edge of sterile lamina pale and thin, o.5 mm or more wide E. latemarginatum
Edge of sterile lamina not conspicuously pale and thin 14
14a. Sterile frond acuminate or apiculate 15
Sterile frond not apiculate not acuminate 19
15a. Rhizome scales 10-15 x 3-4mm, light brown, thin; lamina widest above the middle E. thamnopteris
Rhizome scales much smaller, dark; lamina widest at the middle 16
16a. Sterile frond c. 22 x 2 cm E. idenburgensis
Sterile frond much longer, to 4.5 cm wide 17
17a. Apex of sterile frond acuminate 18
Apex of sterile frond with a broad narrow apiculus c.5 mm long E. apiculatum
18a. Sterile frond 35-50 x 3.5-5 cm E. archboldii
Sterile frond to 35 x 2.3cm E. angustifrons
19a. Sterile frond widest 1/3 from the apex, narrowed rather abruptly to the broad pointed apex E. annamense
Sterile frond widest about the middle, or if widest above the middle then narrowed gradually to a rounded apex E. norrisii
20a. Scales on rhizome dark, rigid, glossy 20
Scales on rhizome medium to light brown, mostly rather thin. 30
21a. Small scales on upper surface of frond dark, glossy, elongate, with dark ridge cylindrical marginal hairs each consisting of one cell with a small thin-walled cell at its apex 22
Scales on upper surface otherwise, at least some of their marginal hairs multicellular with a glandular apical cell 23
22a. Scales of lamina 1-2 mm long; fronds with a broadly rounded apex E. apoense
Scales of lamina much smaller; apex of fronds not broadly rounded E. vepriferum
23a. Apex of sterile frond rounded 24
Apex of sterile frond acute or acuminate 26
24a. Phyllopodia 5-10 mm long; lamina of sterile frond always c. 10 times as long as wide 25
Phyllopodia 15-20 mm long; lamina of sterile frond proportionately broader E. scleropyrum
25a. Scales on costa and stipe appressed, those on lamina very small E. nigripes
Scales on costa and stipe spreading, those on lamina 1-2 mm long, abundant E. melanochlamys
26a. Lamina of sterile fronds c.10 times as long as wide. 27
Lamina of sterile fronds c.5 times as long as wide 29
27a. Rhizome scales less then 1 mm wide, somewhat crisped; stipe of fertile frond not or little longer than that of the sterile E. nesioticum
Rhizome scales more than 1m wide, flat; stipe of fertile frond usually twice as long as sterile 28
28a. Sterile frond 3.5- 5.35-50 cm E. archboldii
Sterile frond to c.2.3 - 35 cm E. angustifrons
29a. Rhizome bearing fronds 5-10 mm apart; scales 6 x 1mm; sterile lamina widest below the middle, rather abruptly contracted at the base, apex short-pointed E. brunneum
Rhizome bearing fronds close together; scales 10 x 1.5mm; sterile lamina widest at the middle, base rather narrowly cuneate, apex acuminate E. pallescens
30a. Lower surface of lamina covered with a felt of mossy scales 2-3 mm long E. arachnoideum
Lower surface of lamina bearing smaller, usually appressed scales 31
31a. Fronds of adult plants widest above the middle, with rounded apices and decurrent bases E. luzonicum
Fronds of adult plants, if widest above the middle, rather much narrowed upwards, the apex not broadly rounded 32
32a. Sterile frond with a distinct pale edge which bears abundant scales 1-1.5 mm long, persistent in young plants, mostly lost as old ones E. luzonicum
Sterile fronds without a fringe of scales 33
33a. Apex of frond distinctly pointed, the point broad or acute 34
Apex of sterile frond distinctly rounded E. pullenii
34a. Pale margin of sterile frond thin, flat, 0.5 mm wide or nearly so E. planicosta
Pale margin of sterile frond very narrow, usually reflexed 35
35a. Scales to 1.5 mm wide, not flat 36
Scales wider, flat or little-crisped, edges not inrolled 37
36a. Scales straight and rather stiff with inrolled edges; frond commonly 35 cm or more long, narrowly elliptic E. callifolium
Scales thin, crisped throughout, with long twisted hair points; frond rarely 30 cm long, broadly elliptic E. commutatum
37a. Rhizome scales with many spreading marginal hairs; scales on lamina to 1 mm long, narrow E. sordidum
Rhizome scales with few marginal hairs; scales on lamina stellate, under 0.5 mm long 38
38a. Costa bbroad and not prominent beneath; rhizome scales firm E. novoguineense
Costa prominent beneath; rhizome scales thin with isodiametric cells E. flavigerum