Vachellia farnesiana (Vachellia farnesiana (Linnaeus) Wight & Arnott var. pinetorum (F. J. Hermann) Seigler & Ebinger, Phytologia 87:157. 2005.syn. Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. subsp. pinetorum (F. J. Herm.) Ebinger & Seigler, Southw. Naturalist 47:90. 2002.
Synonymy and types
Basionym: Acacia pinetorum F. J. Herm., J. Wash. Acad. Sci. 38:237. 1948. - Acacia farnesiana (L.) Willd. subsp. pinetorum (F. J. Herm.) Ebinger & Seigler, Southw. Naturalist 47:90. 2002. - Vachellia farnesiana (Linnaeus) Wight & Arnott var. pinetorum (F. J. Hermann) Seigler & Ebinger, Phytologia 87:157. 2005. - - TYPE: UNITED STATES. FLORIDA: Dade Co., hammocks, Long Key (Everglades), 18-26 Jan 1909, J.K.Small & J.J.Carter 2975; in pinelands, Long Key, 6-7 May 1903, J.K.Small & P.Wilson 1778. (syntypes: NY).
Vachellia insularis J. K. Small, Man. s. e. fl. 655, 1505. 1933. - TYPE: UNITED STATES. FLORIDA: Monroe Co., pinelands, Big Pine Key, 21 Mar 1915, J.K.Small & C.A.Mosier 6018; pinelands, Big Pine Key, 27 Feb. 1911, J.K.Small, J.J.Carter & G.K.Small 3549 (synthpes: NY). NOTE: Not Acacia insularis A. Richard (1845), an herbaceous legume lacking stipular spines and prickles and is a synonym of Neptunia pubescens Benth. (Bässler 1998).
Vachellia peninsularis J. K. Small, Man. s. e. fl. 654. 1505. 1933. - TYPE: UNITED STATES. FLORIDA: Dade Co. hammocks, Long Key (Everglades), 18-26 Jan 1909, J.K.Small & J.J.Carter 2975; in pinelands, Long Key, 6-7 May 1903, J.K.Small & P.Wilson 1778 (syntypes: NY). NOTE: Not Senegalia peninsularis Britton & Rose (1928), a species from Baja California, Mexico that has prickles and lacks stipular spines, nor Acacia peninsularis (Britton & Rose) Standley (1936).
Small prostrate to ascending shrub with diffuse branching, usually less than 1.5 m tall.Bark dark gray to brown, furrowed. Twigs dark reddish brown to dark gray, strongly flexuous, usually glabrous. Short shoots commonly present above the stipular spines, to 10 mm long, covered with acuminate stipules and old leaf bases. Leaves alternate, also commonly clustered on the short shoots, 5-35 mm long. Stipular spines light to dark brown, usually becoming light gray with age, symmetrical, terete, straight, stout, to 35(55) x 1.5 mm near the base, mostly glabrous. Petiole adaxially grooved, 3-7 mm long, usually glabrous; petiolar gland solitary, usually located medially on the petiole, sessile to short stalked, circular to slightly elongated, 0.2-1.0 mm long, apex depressed, glabrous. Rachis adaxially grooved, 10-55 mm long, usually sparsely pubescent with erect hairs, a sessile, circular gland, 0.2-0.4 mm across, between the upper 1 to 2 pinna pairs. Pinnae 2 to 6(7) pairs per leaf, 10-20 mm long, 2-10 mm between pinna pairs. Petiolules 0.5-2.0 mm long. Leaflets 8 to 19 pairs per pinna, opposite, 0.5-2.0 mm between leaflets, oblong, 1.5-3.6 x 0.5-1.4 mm, mostly glabrous, lateral veins usually not obvious, only one vein from the base, base oblique, margins usually not ciliate, apex broadly acute to obtuse. Inflorescence a densely flowered globose head, 6-10 mm across, solitary or in clusters of 2 to 5 on the short shoots. Peduncles 12-36(45) x 0.2-0.7 mm, lightly puberulent. Involucre 4- to 5-lobed, located at the base of the globose head, glabrous to lightly puberulent, persistent. Floral bracts spatulate, 0.8-1.3 mm long, apex puberulent, deciduous. Flowers sessile, bright yellow; calyx 5-lobed, 1.1-1.8 mm long, glabrous or nearly so; corolla 5-lobed, 1.9-2.8 mm long, glabrous or nearly so; stamen filaments 3.5-5.5 mm long, distinct; ovary glabrous to puberulent, on a stipe to 0.2 mm long. Legumes dark brown to black, straight to slightly curved, nearly terete in cross section, not constricted between the seeds, oblong, 30-80 x 9-18 mm, coriaceous, reticulately striate, glabrous, eglandular, indehiscent; stipe to 7 mm long; apex obtuse to acuminate, sometimes beaked. Seeds mostly biseriate, imbedded in a sweet pulp, olive green to dark brown, ovoid to ellipsoid, slightly flattened, 4.2-8.0 x 3.5-5.8 mm, smooth; pleurogram U-shaped to oval, 2.5-4.5 mm across. Flowers throughout the year, but most common from October to May. Chromosome number: Not determined.
On moist to dry sites in thickets, open pastures, roadsides, successional fields and other disturbed sites, as well as in open pinelands and hammocks, near sea level in southern Florida, extending north to Citrus County in the central part of the state.
Vachellia farnesiana var. pinetorum is relatively common in southern Florida, being found in the keys, disturbed areas along roads in the everglades, and open pinelands in Dade, Monroe, and Lee Counties. The collections from Citrus County may represent introductions, possible from cultivated plants. It appears to be a diminutive, mostly glabrous form of V. farnesiana. In some of its characteristics it has the appearance of this latter subspecies, particularly the petiole gland, and the inflated fruit. It is easily separated from typical V. farnesiana, however, particularly by the smaller leaflets that lack secondary veins, the strongly flexuous twigs, and the overall smaller size of most of the vegetative structures.
Vachellia farnesiana var. pinetorum is not extremely variable. Rarely the stem, petiole, and rachis are slightly puberulent, and some variation occurs in leaf, leaflet, pinnae, and petiole size. Much of these differences occur because the short shoot leaves are generally smaller than the primary leaves which originate from between the stipular spines on new growth. Short shoots are common on members of the V. farnesiana group, and have been responsible for much of the taxonomic confusion concerning these species. Some of the differences in leaflet size, however, are probably related to environmental conditions. Though most specimens have leaves that rarely exceed 2.5 mm in length, leaflets as long as 3.6 mm long are rarely found. These larger leaflets are common on many of the specimens from Citrus County, Florida.
Many different characteristics have been used to distinguish Vachellia farnesiana var. pinetorum from other member of the Vachellia farnesiana complex (Long and Lakela 1971, Isely 1990). The small, red, deciduous glands are common on the peduncles of V. farnesiana var. pinetorum, but are not always present, and are early deciduous, making it a poor key characteristics. Also, the ratio of the calyx /corolla length has be used, but is too variable to be useful, as are the beaked fruits, which are sometimes found on fruits of typical V. farnesiana.
Many member of the Vachellia farnesiana group commonly give a positive test for cyanide when the leaves are crushes. Vachellia farnesiana var. pinetorum, in contract, is rarely cyanogenic. Of the more that 60 specimens tested only 6 gave a positive test. In all instances, the results were weak after 24 hours.
Throughout the year, but most common from October to May.
- 5 miles SW of Crystal River of Fla. 494, 17 Apr 1983, L.M.Baltzell 11661 (FLAS);
- by Black Creek bridge, W of Ozello, 27 Apr 1967, W.G.D'Arcy 1574 (MO);
- ca. 6 miles from US 19 on Fla. 494, at 3rd & Main in Ozello, T19S R16E Sec. 11, dry roadside with Juniperus silicicola, 18 Mar 1980, B.Hansen, D.Richardson & R.Sauleda 6886 (FTG);
- Ozello, across from fire station, SR 494, 5 miles W of US 19, 3 Sep 1987, N.Mawhinney s.n. (FTG);
- along FLA Rt. 494, ca. 1 mile W of Ozello, 10 Mar 1992, M.T.Strong, D.R.Strong & C.L.Kelloff 894 (US) 6.5 miles W of US 19, on SR 494 (Ozello Road), 11 May 1983, M.E.Schmid A-232 (FLAS, FTG);
- in rock just above high tide, end of Ozello road (Fla. 494), ca. 10 miles W of U.S. 98, 26 Mar 1962, D.B.Ward & B.Tomlinson 2990 (FLAS);
- about 6 miles W of Dunnellon at jct. of Fla 448 & Fla 495, De Rosa Plaza, 15 Apr 1983, G.Whitton s.n. (FLAS);
- edge of pine-saw palmetto on thin sand over plate rock, Collier-Sproul Tract, Feb 1974, D.Tabb s.n. (FTG);
- NE side of Palma Vista Hammock, Everglades National Park, 7 Nov 1965, L.J.Bass 33454 (FSU);
- Homestead, off route 27 at eastern edge of National Park, 16 Dec 1968, J.A.Churchill s.n. (MSC);
- east boundary, Everglades National Park, 21 Dec 1955, F.C.Craighead 654 (FLAS);
- Pinelands, Everglades National Park, 17 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27080 (EIU);
- Long Pine Key, Everglages National Park, 17 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27089 (EIU);
- 2 Mar 1923, J.A.Harris 2381 (MINN);
- along Glade 1, Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, 14 Mar 1986, A.Herndon 1417 (FLAS, FTG, NY);
- Long Pine Key, Everglades National Park, 10 Mar 1984, S.R.Hill 13336 (ILL, MO, NY);
- Pineland Trail, Everglades National Park, D.Isely & I.Isely 10975 (NY);
- Buena Vista, 27 Dec 1929, H.N.Moldenke 276 (ILL, MO, NY);
- Everglades National Park, 24 Apr 1993, R.G.Reimus 327 (FTG);
- Paradise Key, 21-29 Sep 1917, W.E.Safford & C.A.Mosier 234 (US):
- S end of largest borrow pit at Pine Island, 11 Mar 1985, R.Seavey & J.Seavey 3 (FTG);
- Everglades National Park, 17 Mar 1977, D.S.Seigler & D.A.Young 10270 (EIU, ILL);
- between Cutler and Black Point, 13-16 Nov 1903, J.K.Small & J.J.Carter 876 (NY);
- W of Camp Jackson, 6-9 May 1904, J.K.Small & P.Wilson 1963 (F, NY, US);
- Big Pine Key, NE of Ramrod, pine woods, 12 Mar 1946, J.A.Steyermark 63254 (F);
- Deering Hammock, May 1974, D.Tabb s.n. (FTG);
- off Farm Road, Everglades National Park, 7 Mar 1968, P.B.Tomlinson & V.Sullivan s.n. (FTG);
- eastern Sanibel Island, 17 Mar 1966, W.C.Brumbach 5333 (FLAS, NY);
- dry roadside bank, central Sanibel Island, 19 Nov 1966, W.C.Brumbach 5626 (FLAS);
- western Sanibel Island, 7 Mar 1968, W.C.Brumbach 6161 (FLAS);
- Sanibel Island, 22 Dec 1953, G.R.Cooley 2429 (FLAS, NY, US);
- near yacht harbor on NE end of Sanibel Island, 3 Nov 1978, D.S.Correll & H.B.Correll 50336 (FTG, NY);
- in roadside ditch on Pine Island about 15 miles NW of Fort Myers, 8 Feb 1938, C.C.Deam 58776 (F, MINN);
- Sanibel, Jul-Aug 1900, A.S.Hitchcock s.n. (F);
- Pine Island, 7 Jan 1967, O.Lakela, R.W.Long & R.Broome 30608 (US);
- Sanibel Island, Mar 1891, J.H.Simpson 297 (F, US);
- Sanibel Island, J. N. "Ding" Darling National Wildlife Refuge, 0.2 miles W of Tarpon Bay Road on Sanibel-Captiva Road, disturbed area around dump, 28 Oct 1978, R.P.Wunderlin, A.Arcuri & B.Hansen 6205 (FTG);
- Big Pine Key, N of old rr section house on U.S. 1, 28 Jan 1966, G.Avery s.n. (FLAS);
- Big Pine Key, 1/4 mile W of Old Wooden Bridge, S14 T66S R29E, 28 Jan 1966, G.Avery s.n. (FLAS);
- (a specimen of var. farnesiana also on sheet) Big Pine Key, 14 Jan 1978, K.Barringer 772 (F);
- Big Pine Key, 22 Jun 1956, G.K.Brizicky & W.L.Stern 216 (NY, US);
- Big Pine Key, in field near Key Deer National Wildlife Refuge, 26 Jun 1969, J.Brockmann 7 (FSU);
- Big Pine Key, hammock edge behind Mr. Jims at E end of the key off route 1, 25 Apr 1970, J.A.Churchill s.n. (MSC);
- Big Pine Key, 4 May 1943, M.A.Cornman 2171 (MO);
- Key Largo, towards N end of Key, 25 Oct 1973, D.S.Correll, H.B.Correll & E.Brackmann 40305 (FTG, MO);
- Big Pine Key, 8 Feb 1977, D.S.Correll & J.Popenoe 48087 (FTG, MO, NY);
- Paradise Key, Royal Palm Hammock, 11 Dec 1903, A.A.Eaton 551 (F);
- Big Pine Key, Key Deer Sanctuary, 18 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27095 (EIU);
- Big Pine Key, Jack Watson Nature Trail, 18 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27096 (EIU);
- Cudjoe Key, edge of U. S. 1, 18 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27100 (EIU);
- Big Pine Key, edge of U. S. 1, 18 Jul 1996, J.E.Ebinger 27105 (EIU);
- Big Pine Key, 13 Apr 1979, R.K.Godfrey 76952 (FSU);
- Big Pine Key, 0.5 miles S of the Blue Hole on Key Deer Rd, 14 Apr 1975, S.R.Hill 2764 (FTG);
- Sugarloaf Key, mile marker 19.4, roadcut towards radio N of Rte. 1, 20 Mar 1985, S.R.Hill 16068 (MO, NY);
- Cudjoe Key, 13-14 Feb 1935, E.P.Killip 31380 (FLAS, US);
- Big Pine Key, 22 Feb 1936, E.P.Killip 31566 (FLAS, US);
- Big Pine Key, 29 Jan-16 Feb 1940, E.P.Killip 32768 (CAS, F, NY, UC, US);
- Big Pine Key, Watson Hammock, 1 Dec 1951, E.P.Killip 41486 (F, NY, US);
- Sugarloak Key, 1 Feb 1952, E.P.Killip 41871 (US);
- Big Pine Key, clearing near Inn, 20 Dec 1952, E.P.Killip 42447 (FLAS, TEX, US);
- thickets along Tamiami Canal, ca. 40 miles W of Miami, 18 Apr 1947, G.H.M.Lawrence 145 (BH);
- Big Pine Key, near Watson Hammock, 7 Sep 1952, E.L.Little,Jr. 14989 (FLAS, FSU, MOR);
- Big Pine Key, 30 Jan 1940, R.F.Martin 1314 (NY, UC);
- Big Pine Key, 4 miles N of US 1, slash pine woods over oolite, 21 Mar 1965, S.McDaniel 5804 (FSU);
- Big Pine Key, 14 Mar 1947, W.C.Muenscher & R.F.Thorne 18449 (CU);
- Cudjoe's Key, 16 Mar 1898, C.L.Pollard, G.N.Collins & E.L.Morris 91 (F, MINN, NY, US);
- Key Largo, 5 Apr 1939, L.E.Scull s.n. (FLAS);
- Key Largo, 21 Feb 1939, L.E.Scull s.n. (FLAS);
- Pinecrest, 22 Jun 1942, L.E.Scull s.n. (FLAS);
- Big Pine Key, 4 Feb 1940, R.J.Seibert 1250 (MINN);
- Long Island, 26 Nov 1912, J.K.Small 3887 (NY);
- Key Largo, rocky roadside, 1 Dec 1927, L.W.Taylor 49 (FLAS);
- Big Pine Key, 26 Dec 1960, M.Wible s.n. (CM);